Skip Navigation

Spatial Test Battery (STB)

About the STB

The STB

Does your child have a special ability for visualizing how objects look from different angles? Understand how complex systems operate? Readily remember faces, objects, or interesting designs? Prefer visual images and graphic displays over text?

Answering yes to one or more of these questions may mean a child has a high level of spatial ability. CTY’s Spatial Test Battery (STB), given via computer at hundreds of locations around the United States, can help characterize child’s ability in this potentially useful and academically important skill area.

Benefits of taking the STB

Taking the STB can:

  • identify a previously unrecognized talent, one that is not assessed by most standardized tests.
  • provide a more comprehensive profile of your child’s cognitive abilities when combined with scores from assessments of verbal and mathematical ability.
  • help you and your child make decisions about educational and career choices, such as choosing a college major or considering possible careers.
  • offer your child the opportunity to be recognized at a CTY award ceremony for high-scoring students in grades 5-8.
  • allow your child to become eligible for CTY’s summer and online math and science courses. 

 

Spatial Ability

What Is Spatial Ability?

Spatial ability is a collection of skills that allow us to reason about and interact with the world. These skills include the ability to:

  • understand and remember the spatial relationships among objects
  • imagine what objects look like from different viewpoints
  • visualize how separate parts of complex physical systems interrelate
  • effectively recall and recreate images and sequences of images

Spatial abilities appear to be fundamental to learning and distinct from verba and mathematical forms of intellectual talent. Having strong spatial skills can contribute to success in mathematics, natural sciences, engineering, architecture, and many other fields of study. 

Performing laparoscopic or robotic surgery, visualizing the structure of complex molecules in chemistry, understanding a building from its interior and exterior, or piloting high-speed aircraft—these all require spatial ability. Such talent will continue to be in demand as technology drives many of tomorrow’s jobs in fields such as medicine, physics, engineering, mathematics, finance, and more.

 

Test Format

The STB is given at all of the hundreds of Prometric Testing Centers around the world. This is not an open test; families must have an eligibility number given to them by CTY to call Prometric and schedule a test.

Subtests

The computerized STB contains four subtests:

All four sections open with a tutorial so the student knows how to proceed. There is also a general tutorial that explains how to use the computer and the overall layout of the test.

Within the subtests, easy tasks come first and more difficult tasks later. All items are multiple choice, and each item has only one correct solution. Students may also skip tasks within a subtest and go back to change an answer. Once a subtest is exited, however, it can’t be re-entered to change answers. Before starting the test, the student will be asked several background questions. The data collected from these questions will be used for informational purposes and will have no effect on the STB score.

Timing and Questions

The actual time a student needs to take the Spatial Test Battery (STB) varies greatly according to whether or not the Perspectives subtest is given, the time needed to complete the tutorials, and whether subtests are completed in less than the allotted time. Keep in mind that speed is not necessarily indicative of overall performance. Some 5th and 6th  graders manage to take the Spatial Test Battery in less than half an hour. For students in grades seven and above, testing times of more than one-and-a-half hours are the exception. Prometric will schedule you for two hours, but the test will not take this long.

Note:

  • Each sub-test is timed separately. A screen timer shows the time remaining as students work through the items.
  • Some of the test questions are experimental and will not count toward the student's score.
  • Because 5th- and 6th-graders take a shortened version of the STB, score results from those grades cannot be used to determine eligibility for courses in grades 7 and above.

 

 5th and 6th Graders:
Number of Questions
5th and 6th Graders: Time Allowed7th Graders and older:
Number of Questions
7th Graders and older: Time Allowed

General  Tutorial

 

15 min

 

15 min

Questionnaire

 

4 min

 

4 min

Visual Memory: Memorization Phase Instructions

 

3 min

 

3 min

Visual Memory: Memorization Phase Viewing of Shapes

15 Shapes to memorize--No questions to answer

8 min

22 Shapes to memorize--No questions to answer

8 min

Surface Development: Tutorial

 

4 min

 

4 min

Surface Development: Exam

30 (6 Pairs of shapes and boxes with 5 questions for each pair)

12 min

30 (6 Pairs of shapes and boxes with 5 questions for each pair)

12 min

Block Rotation: Tutorial

 

5 min

 

5 min

Block Rotation: Exam

20

12 min

20

9 min

Visual Memory Recall Phase: Repeated Instructions

 

2 min

 

2 min

Visual Memory Recall Phase: Exam

15

8 min

20

8 min

Perspectives: Tutorial

Not given to 5th and 6th graders

Not given to 5th and 6th graders

 

6 min

Perspectives: Exam

Not given to 5th and 6th graders

Not given to 5th and 6th graders

22

19 min

Survey/Comments

 

10 min

 

10 min

Totals

65

83 min

92

109 min

 

Sample Items

Below are links to sample items for each of the STB subtests. The solutions to these sample items can be found at the bottom of each web page section. Depending on your screen resolution setting, you may not be able to see all appropriate images on your screen at the same time. You may want to print the pages and then try the sample items.

1. Visual Memory Subtest: Learning Phase

In the Visual Memory Subtest, there are two parts. The first part is the Visual Memory: Learning Phase, in which you will have to memorize a number of irregular shapes, parts of which are blackened. The second part is the Visual Memory: Recall Phase, which you will see about 30 minutes later, after completing two other subtests. In the Visual Memory: Recall Phase, you will need to identify the shapes you memorized during the Learning Phase. The items will be presented in the Recall phase as sets of identically shaped figures with different blackened parts. These could be some of the shapes you have to memorize:

VMlearn

Later in the Spatial Test Battery, the same shape will be presented among different, though similar, figures. See below for examples for the Recall Phase. Remember that you will have to complete two other subtests before you are presented with the Recall Phase to identify the shapes you memorized earlier.

2. Surface Development Subtest

In the Surface Development Subtest, you will see irregular, flat shapes, such as pieces of paper or cardboard, and boxes created by folding these shapes; it will be your task to find out which lines on the flat shapes correspond to lines on the boxes. In the flat shapes, like the ones shown below, the solid lines indicate the edges of the shape, and the dashed lines show you where it can be folded. An arrow on each flat shape and the respective box will help you identify the orientation of the box relative to the shape.

To show you how the pattern folds to form the box, you can see the actual process by viewing this folding image (once image loads, click start or play to begin rotation - 1.5meg). Rotating images will only be available during the tutorial--not during the actual test.

In the sample tasks below, try to find out what letter(s) on the boxes correspond to each of the five numbers on the flat shapes.

SDitems

3. Block Rotation Subtest

This subtest measures your ability to mentally rotate blocks in space. In the Block Rotation subtest, you will see blocks of different shapes, with cubes, cylinders, and other objects on them. In the examples below, you see six images. The image in the upper left-hand corner shows the model block. One of the five images labeled A through E also shows the model block, but rotated in space. The remaining images show a different block, rotated to various positions in space. Your task is to choose from the images labeled A through E the image that shows the model block rotated in space.

To show you what a block would look like as it is rotated to different positions, please view this movie (once image loads, click start or play to begin rotation - 243K). Rotating images will be available during the tutorial only--not during the actual test.

Here are six sample tasks:

br01

br02

br03

br04

br05

br06

br07

br08

4. Visual Memory Subtest: Recall Phase

In the Visual Memory: Recall Phase, you will have to remember images that you memorized during the Visual Memory: Learning Phase. Keep in mind that the Recall Phase occurs approximately 30 minutes after the Learning Phase. Take a moment to remember the shapes from Visual Memory: Learning Phase. Can you pick them out in the examples below? Note that these shapes will be presented only after you have completed the Surface Development subtest and the Block Rotation subtest. This is how the shapes will be presented later among other figures:

vm01

vm02

vm03

vm04

vm05

vm06

As you see, in the Learning Phase of this subtest, it is not important to memorize the order of the shapes or where they appear on the screen. The task is to memorize the contours of the shapes and where they are blackened. In the actual test, you will have to memorize 22 shapes (15 shapes if you are a 5th- or 6th-grader). Use all of the time allotted wisely. Students who spend more time memorizing do better on the Recall Phase!

5. Perspectives Subtest

Note: 5th- and 6th- graders do not take the Perspectives Subtest.

In this test, you see fictitious constellations of stars. Some stars are light; others are dark. All stars are the same size. So when some stars appear to be large, they are in the foreground of the constellation; when others appear to be small, they are in the background. Note that further stars might be hidden behind those that you see. Look at the example below. The perspective from which you see the constellation is assumed to be the view from the FRONT:

front

If the constellation rotated in space or if you were in a spaceship orbiting it, you could see it from other perspectives, relative to the front view shown above. For instance, you might see it from the LEFT or from the RIGHT as indicated here:

leftfrontight

The following four movies show you various rotations of the constellation. Suppose the constellation performs a rotation of 90 degrees in a horizontal plane, as shown in the first movie (once image loads, you may need to click start or play to begin the rotation).

At the end of the first movie, the constellation appears to you as seen from the RIGHT. To demonstrate this, the movie shows both the static front view (in Picture #1) and the constellation as it rotates (in Picture #2). Look at the rotation on the screen several times to understand the change of perspective.

If the constellation performed the same rotation in the opposite direction, you would see it from the LEFT. This rotation is shown in the second movie. Follow the second movie several times to see how the constellation looks from the LEFT.

If the second movie continued for another 90 degrees, you could see the constellation from BEHIND.

The third and fourth movie show 90-degree rotations in a vertical plane, so that you see the constellation from ABOVE and from BELOW, respectively. The third movie shows you the rotation that results in the view from ABOVE. The fourth movie shows you the rotation that results in the view from BELOW. Start the rotations in the movies to see how the constellation looks from the various perspectives.

In the actual test, you will see more such constellations. In every task, two pictures of one constellation will be presented. Picture #1 will always show the FRONT view. The perspective from which you see the constellation in Picture #2 will not be named. It will be your task to find out whether that is the view from the RIGHT, from the LEFT, from ABOVE, from BELOW, or from BEHIND.

All images in the actual test will be static. Rotating images will be shown only in the tutorial preceding the test. Here are six sample questions:

pe01

pe02

pe03

 

pe05

pe06

Answers

Surface Development Answers

Item 1: 1=B 2=H 3=E 4=H 5=J

Item 2: 1=H 2=G 3=H 4=D 5=A

Item 3: 1=L 2=A 3=O 4=E 5=B

Item 4: 1=V 2=I 3=O 4=C 5=X

Block Rotation Answers

Item 1=A

Item 2=B

Item 3=A

Item 4=C

Item 5=E

Item 6=C

Item 7=C

Item 8=D

Perspectives Answers

Item 1=Left

Item 2=Above

Item 3=Right

Item 4=Below

Item 5=Above

Item 6=Below

Visual Memory Answers

Item 1=E

Item 2=A

Item 3=C

Item 4=B

Item 5=D

Item 6=B

 

Testing Tips

  • Don’t panic, even if you don’t have a clue. Remember, this is a test designed only for students who participate in the CTY Talent Search. The test is meant to be challenging.
  • If you start to panic, try to relax. Close your eyes for a few seconds and concentrate on your breathing.
  • Review the sample items by clicking on the tab above.
  • If you get stuck on a question, go ahead and take your best guess. You must answer each question before you move to the next question, so don’t spend too much time on any one question. In multiple-choice questions, eliminate the obviously wrong choices first, then, carefully consider the remaining ones.
  • Unlike other tests, there is no break during the STB.
  • On the STB there is no penalty for wrong answers, so guessing is OK. Items are of equal value, so the more correct answers you give, the higher your score. If you find you don’t have enough time to finish, take the last minute in each subsection and take guesses to make sure you finish each subsection.
  • If time permits, use the Previous button and go back and check your answers.
  • Many students do not use the full eight minutes allowed for the Visual Memory: Memorization Phase. Students who use more time to memorize the shapes score higher on the Visual Memory: Recall Phase. You will need to complete two other sub-tests before you are asked to recall the images.
  • Finally, be confident, and good luck!

Register to Test

You must first register with CTY to obtain an eligiblity number before you can register to test. If you are a student in grades 5-8 and have already applied to the current academic year Talent Search, you are eligible to take the STB. To obtain your seven-digit eligibility number log in to your MyCTY account. You may also call CTY at 410-735-6278 or email ctyinfo@jhu.edu (include child's name and address). The eligibility number must be used before June 30, 2017. Students may take the STB two times during any single academic year. 

NOTE: Special testing accommodations are available for students with disabilities. Please visit the Disabilities web page for more information.